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时间:2018/4/1 20:01:30  作者:  来源:  浏览:0  评论:0
内容摘要:All the reasons why Mumbai will be under water again next year, and the year after thatSeptember 07, 2017 Quartz India这就是为什么孟买将在明年再次被水淹Quart...
All the reasons why Mumbai will be under water again next year, and the year after that
September 07, 2017 Quartz India

Quartz India 2017-09-07


By the time the downpour started on Aug. 29, many Mumbaikars had already left their homes for work or school. A savvy few among them may have checked their social media updates or news reports in the morning, but nothing rang alarm bells. Some local celebrities were tweeting about the possibility of high rainfall that morning, but the Regional Meteorological Centre in Mumbai chose not to send out any formal warnings. Rain fell heavily—up to 12 inches within nine hours in some areas. It coincided with high tide flowing into the city, causing abject misery for residents and bringing India’s financial capital to its knees.

As a result of the severe flooding, thousands were stranded on the streets or at schools and workplaces. Rising water levels led to vehicles getting stuck or submerged. Local train services were cancelled. Seven bodies were recovered just that day; over the next three days, the death toll rose to 20. A prominent doctor fell into an open manhole, and two two-year-olds died in landslidesth near their homes.

The basic conditions are far from unusual: Flooding is almost an annual ritual in this city of over 20 million residents. At least once between June and August—monsoon season—life comes to a standstill. For many residents, these recent events repeated a nightmare that unfolded in the last week of July 2005, when the city drowned under an unprecedented and unexpected 39 inches of rainfall, leading to the death of over 540 people within the city.
形势远非罕见:在这个拥有2000万居民的城市里,水灾几乎是一年一度的仪式。 6月至8月之间至少有一次季风,雷打不动。对于许多居民来说,最近的事件重复了2005年7月最后一周发生的噩梦,当时这座城市在史无前例的39英寸降雨量面前沉没,导致全市超过540人死亡。

With each instance, there is public outrage and anger against civic authorities and the local government, who are caught napping when the flooding begins. Preparations are never carried out on time—and this also means that recovery work is hindered once the flooding begins. A geographic survey conducted in June by the Hindustan Times and a panel of experts threw the spotlight on the city’s utter unpreparedness for any level of flooding, with the panel giving it a worrying 3.8 on a scale of 10. The panel found the city lagging in many basic preventive measures, including the laying of roads dug up for civic work, removal of garbage floating on the city’s drains (known locally as nullahs), and desilting of choked drains across the city. But as soon as the water recedes, the wrath is forgotten, Mumbai’s resilient spirit is lauded, and life moves on. Until the next year, or the next deluge.
每一次事件的发生后,当局和地方政府都面对公众的愤怒和斥责,而在当洪水开始时,他们只会打盹。准备工作从不按时完成 - 这也意味着一旦洪水开始后恢复工作就会受到阻碍。6月份,由印度斯坦时报和专家组成的小组进行的一项地理调查才让人们发现城市对任何水位的洪水都无法承受,专家组以10分为单位却给它一个令人担忧的3.8分。专家组认为这个城市许多基本的预防措施都滞后,包括铺设挖掘道路,清除漂浮在城市下水道的垃圾(本地称为明渠),以及清理整个城市堵塞的下水道。但是一旦洪水过去,愤怒就会被遗忘,孟买的不屈精神受到称赞,生活就会继续。直到明年,还是下一次洪水。

Urban planning experts say that Mumbai’s helplessness in the face of heavy downpour is a combination of several factors, beginning with the absence of a sophisticated weather forecasting system. “There seems to be no method of day-to-day projections and predictions, and even if there are, there is no systematic communication of these to the public,” says Prasad Shetty, associate professor at the School of Environment and Architecture.
城市规划专家说,面对大雨,孟买的无奈是从缺乏复杂的天气预报系统开始的几方面因素综合导致的。环境与建筑学院副教授Prasad Shetty说:“似乎没有任何日常预测方法,即使存在,也无法与公众进行系统性沟通。”

Another cause of chronic flooding is the city’s inefficient water drainage system. Combined with unrestricted construction activity in Mumbai’s low-lying central neighborhoods, there is no place for the water to recede, especially with the high tide washing into the city from the sea.

Rahul Srivastava, founder of the Institute of Urbanology, also points to the city’s history of building on land reclaimed from the water, a practice dating back to the British times. Since Mumbai is essentially a narrow peninsula helmed in by the sea, the only way to increase liveable land area was to take it back from the sea. Marshy lands were filled with rubble and entire neighborhoods were built on top; the last such major reclamation project was in the prosperous south Mumbai area of Nariman Point as recently as the 1960s and ’70s. Indiscriminate building activity over such land has ensured that Mumbai remains vulnerable to the threat of flooding even now. The metropolis we know as Mumbai was originally made up of seven discrete islands, and the weakest areas are the “joints” such as Worli. “Much of this city has been defined against sea water, against its natural geology, so flooding is a threat endemic to Mumbai,” Srivastava says.
城市学研究所的创始人Rahul Srivastava也回顾了从水中回收的土地上建造这座城市的历史,这追溯到英国时代。由于孟买本质上是一个狭窄的半岛,因此增加适宜居住的土地面积的唯一办法就是从海里取得土地。沼泽地上堆满了瓦砾,整个社区都建在这上面;最近一次这样的大型填海工程是在20世纪60年代和70年代最近在Nariman Point南部繁华的孟买地区。在这样的土地上不分青红皂白的建筑活动导致的结果是,即使在现在,孟买仍然面临洪水威胁。我们称孟买的大都市最初由七个离散的岛屿组成,最薄弱的区域是像Worli这样的“关节”部位。 Srivastava说:“这座城市大部分都是针对海水的防护措施,与其自然地质相矛盾,所以洪水是孟买特有的威胁。”

The city needs good civic planning, Srivastava adds, and for modern technology to work alongside existing ecology. And that is where successive governments—irrespective of political affiliation—have let Mumbai down. According to Srivastava, drainage and storm-water outlets and a clear sewage system are not just crisis-management tools, but elements of basic good civic infrastructure. And Mumbai is severely lacking in all of these.
Srivastava补充说,这座城市需要良好的公民规划,需要现代技术与生态学共同工作。这就是历届政府 - 无论其政治派别 - 所作所为都让孟买失望。根据Srivastava的说法,排水和雨水出口以及明确的污水处理系统不仅仅是危机管理工具,还包括基本的良好公民基础设施。所有这些孟买都严重缺乏。

With irregular and insufficient garbage collection systems and debris from metro construction activity piling up, water outlets have been choking up further in the last few months. Madhav Pai, director of the WRI India Ross Center, also talks about the alarming increase in construction in the upmarket, central neighborhoods of Dadar, Parel, and Worli—among the worst affected in last week’s rain.
由于垃圾收集系统不规范,垃圾收集系统不完善以及地铁建设活动的兴起,在过去的几个月中,饮水网络一直在进一步失能。世界资源研究所印度罗斯中心主任Madhav Pai也谈到在达达尔,佩雷尔和沃利等高档中心社区施工建设的惊人增长,这些地区是上周受暴雨影响最严重的区域。

“Even between 2005 and now, the built-up area in these neighborhoods has increased without any regard to open spaces and flow of water. There is just too much concrete, so where will the water go?” he says. Srivastava echoes this concern over rapid construction. “This whole craze for ‘sea facing’ apartments has led to a serious increase in the number of high-rise buildings and rampant concretization close to the sea,” he says. “And it puts entire localities in a very vulnerable position.”
“即使从2005年到现在,这些社区的建筑面积也增加了,却没有考虑到开放空间和排水问题。有太多的混凝土,水会流去哪里?“他说。斯里瓦斯塔瓦在快速施工方面回应了这种担忧, “对于海景公寓的热潮导致高层建筑数量的迅速增加,并且在靠近大海的地方肆意兴建,”他说。 “它使整个地区处于一个非常脆弱的位置。”

Pai adds that while the government mandates safety measures such as using permeable materials and leaving space for water to drain, those strategies are seldom implemented by builders. And then there is the destruction of natural features known to act as sponges, like mangroves and wetlands, once plentiful in Mumbai.

Mumbai once had a possible roadmap for combating the city’s tendency to flood—but it stalled out over time. Following a heavy downpour in 1985, the Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) appointed British engineering consultants Watson Hawksley to chalk out a detailed plan for this project.
孟买曾经有一个规划的路线图来解决洪水问题 - 但随着时间的推移,这个规划已经停滞不前。 Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation(BMC)在1985年经历了一场沉重的暴雨后,任命英国工程咨询公司Watson Hawksley为此项目提供了详细的规划。

Called Brihanmumbai Storm Water Disposal System (BRIMSTOWAD), this would have overhauled the city’s drainage system by installing new pumping stations and repairing old pipelines, allowing the city to withstand up to two inches of rainfall in an hour. The environmental journalist Darryl D’Monte notes in that this plan was hailed as a milestone drainage blueprint for Mumbai. However, it has languished: Less than 50% of the work has been completed so far, with no record of where the remaining money has gone.

Meanwhile, desilting the water drains (removing the clogged layers of sand and grainy soil) all over the city has been slow going, and the clean-up operation of the Mithi, one of the four rivers inside the city limits and the prime culprit in the 2005 floods, has been equally inadequate. During the 2005 deluge, the Mithi river played a large part in throwing back the water flowing into its limits, since it was already choking with garbage and pollutants dumped by the city. Twelve years on, despite plans to allow Mithi to be an outlet for receding rainwater, not much has changed.

The city’s premier civic body, the BMC, is tasked with organizing the cleanup efforts, but Shetty says the river has only become more polluted with heavy metals and garbage in the last few years, leaving it vulnerable to choking and flooding.“There is a basic lack of political and bureaucratic will to implement a long-term development plan for the city, so we are always operating in crisis mode,” Shetty adds.

The scenario of heavy rainfall and flooding will only become increasingly likely in the future. Experts stress the need for preparation—solar roof tops for electricity, food and drinking water supply, first aid—among those managing public spaces like municipal corporation offices, community schools, and religious institutions, where people seek shelter and assistance.

But Pai points out that many of those responses—from both the authorities and from citizens—only emerge as a reaction to disaster, when they should be working ahead of it. “The current conversation in resilience literature everywhere is how to turn this spirit into a state of preparedness.” And Mumbai needs to learn that lesson. And learn it fast.
但是Pai指出,许多来自当局和公民的反应只是面对灾难时才作出反应。 “目前在复原力文学中的对话是如何将这种精神转化为准备状态。”孟买需要吸取教训。并快速学习。【译者:不知道什么意思】

所有信息均来自:百度一下 (重庆时时彩后三稳赚_)